LaserBreeze is built on the base of photo-acoustic spectroscopy (PAS) and optical parametric oscillator (OPO) is one of the most intensively developing types of spectroscopy. The method is based on photo-acoustic phenomena primarily discovered by A. Bell in 1880. The effect consists in appearance of acoustic waves when gas is undergone by electromagnetic radiation modulated at acoustic frequencies in the spectral range from UV to IR and corresponding to the absorption bands of the gas.
Application of photo-acoustic effect for analysis of gas mixtures is simple and reliable.
Also it possesses high selectivity and allows obtaining results in real-time.
Beside that the method has very large dynamic range for concentration sensitivity.
This makes possible detection of gases in concentrations differing in tens of thousand times in one sample.
The designed spectrometer consists of laser source, photo-acoustic detector (PAD) with sample injection unit and electronic control unit. Developed by Special Technologies, Ltd. OPO with wavelength tuning 2.5 — 10.7 μm is used as laser source. This OPO is pumped by Q-switched Nd:YLF laser at 1.053 μm. Extremely wide wavelength tuning range was obtained by using two types of nonlinear elements. Registration of biomarker absorption spectra is carried out by means of resonant PAD.
Reference cell is placed in PAD and contains special prepared gas mixture consisting of C3H6O, CH4, N2O, CF4 and SF6. Reference sell is used as spectral reference for absorption spectra analysis.
Sample injection unit provides sample temperature, humidity and pressure measuring, sample injection in to PAD for sample analysis and purging spectrometer pneumatic path with fresh air after analysis. Pyroelectric detector (PD) is used for measuring OPO power and normalizing the PAD signals. Measured electrical signals from PAD and PD go to the electronic control unit for data processing. Electro-mechanical elements are controlled by the electronic control unit. Processed data are displayed on the screen of PC.
Spectrometer LaserBreeze operates in 3 modes:
— recording of absorption spectra of the sample in all spectral range for further processing by means of mathematical statistic methods, e. g. Principal Component Analysis (PCA). PCA allows discover not evident correlations in large data arrays. Particular in diagnostics PCA allows reliable dividing different groups of patients;
— concentration measurements of a set of gases in a sample for detailed analysis of patient's state;
— continuous monitoring of concentration of one compound in real time for treatment efficiency control especially when strong drugs are used.
Applications of LaserBreeze:
— for gas analysis in medicine, including exhaled air analysis and evaporations from the skin;
— for medical researches: screening, laboratory analysis and treatment efficiency control.
In conclusion, we would notice that for today the developed spectrometer LaserBreeze is a platform for different scientific researches. Such researches can help us to create much simple and not so expensive systems specialized for particular application or diseases.
|Infrared source||optical parametric oscillator|
|Wavelength||2.6 — 10.6 μм|
|Concentration sensitivity, not worse||1 ppm|
|Number of detected materials||20|
|Relative error in determining biomarkers concentration||30 %|
|Reliability and selectivity of biomarkers identification||95 %|
|Sample volume for detecting biomarkers
composition and concentration
|Detection time for one biomarkers in a sample||3 s|
|Detection time for 10 biomarkers in a sample||2 min|
|Dimensions||280 × 590 × 690 mm|
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Starikova M. K., Bulanova A. A., Bukreeva E. B., Karapuzikov A. A., Karapuzikov A. I., Kistenev Y. V., Klementyev V. M., Kolker D. B., Kuzmin D. A., Nikiforova O. Y., Ponomarev Yu. N., Sherstov I. V., Boyko A. A. Noninvasive express diagnostics of pulmonary diseases based on control of patient’s gas emission using methods of IR and terahertz laser spectroscopy // Proc. SPIE 9065, Fundamentals of Laser-Assisted Micro- and Nanotechnologies 2013, 906514 (November 28, 2013).